Biography of Erik Erikson Erik Hamburger Erikson born in 1902 Frankfurt, Germany. He never knew his biological father. A few years after Erie’s birth, her mother took him to a local Jewish pediatrician, Dry. Theodore Hamburger for a treatment of minor illness. His mother and the pediatrician eventually fell in love. He quickly developed a sense that something was wrong his mother and father were Jewish his own physical appearance was clearly Scandinavian. Later on he found the truth about his heritage, his identity crisis was worsened. Rejecting his stepfather’s plea to become physician.
He went to Europe and enrolled in art school and eager to learn about culture and history. He returned home at the age of 25 prepared to settle down and teach art for a living. Erikson was asked by his former high school friend Peter Blobs to Join him as a teacher in Experimental Nursery school in Vienna where he met Anna Freud and her famous father Sigmund Freud. Anna Freud was trying to convert psychoanalytic interest in childhood experiences of adult. Erikson shared her pioneering interest and was eventually trained by her as a child analyst.
Erikson was still unsure to earn his living a psychoanalyst because still wanted to paint and draw. However, he began to see a connection between psychoanalysis and art. He observed that children’s dream and play involve important visual images that only later are translated into words in therapy. Concepts and Principles Erosion’s position represents a systematic extension of Fraud’s view of the role of ego in personality functioning. Erikson is a Freudian ego-psychologist. Erikson proposed that ego often operates independently of id emotions and motivation.
Ego functions to help individual adapt to challenges presented by the surrounding. Ego Psychology Emphasized the integration of biological and psychosocial forces in determination of personality functioning. Epigenetic Principle The idea that human development is governed by a sequence of stages that depend on genetic or hereditary factors This principle says that we develop through a predetermined unfolding of our personalities in eight stages. Our progress through each stage is in part determined by our success, or lack of success “crisis”, in all the revises stages.
Crisis defined as the crucial period in every stage. Virtue “inherent strength or active quality’ human qualities or strength emerge from successful resolution of crisis. Psychosocial Development: Stages of Ego Development Stage Basic Conflict Virtue Important Events Outcome Infancy (birth to 18 months) Trust vs.. Mistrust HOPE Feeding Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliability, care, and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust. Early Childhood (2 to 3 years) Autonomy vs.. Shame and Doubt WILL Toilet Training
Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and doubt. Preschool/Play Age (3 to 5 years) Initiative vs.. Guilt PURPOSE Exploration Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt. School Age (6 to 1 1 years) Industry vs.. Inferiority COMPETENCE School
Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority. Adolescence (12 to 18 years) Identity vs.. Role Confusion FIDELITY Social Relationships Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self. Young Adulthood (19 to 40 years) Intimacy vs.. Isolation LOVE Relationships Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people.
Success dads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation. Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years) Generatively vs.. Stagnation CARE Work and Parenthood Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world. Maturity(65 to death) Ego Integrity vs.. Despair WISDOM Reflection on Life Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment.
Success at this tag leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair. Strengths and Weaknesses of Erik Erosion’s Theory Strengths Comprehensiveness It addresses itself to wide variety of phenomenon both normal and abnormal and seeks to biological, social, cultural and historical factors. Heuristic Value Within Psychology, Erosion’s work has contributed directly to lifep psychology and the development of adult psychology. Applied Value Erosion’s work has practical impact in the area of child psychology and psychiatry, counseling, education and social work.
Weaknesses Male Bias Erik Erikson articulated psychosocial stage describes the life cycle hallmarks of white, western society and may not apply well to other cultures or even to our own today/ present time. Erosion’s positive outcome (such as autonomy, initiative, industry) virtues (such as will, purpose and competence) are frequently seen as characteristics of healthy male development. And his negative ones, (doubt, guilt and inferiority) are seen as reflecting unhealthy female development. Sailing’s studies of girl and women’s development suggest different positive values emerge in healthy
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