Biological Anthropology – can demonstrate: how populations vary (biological variations; hair color, blood type, etc. ) that past populations have evolved that modern human populations are evolving and changing through time. Biological/ Physical Anthropology: Foundations In offs ? recognition of variation, concern over how species came to be. Major research areas: Paleontology’s – anthropology concerned with fossil hominids; study of human evolution.
Pharmacology – belonging to same taxonomic order as humans; study of vying primates; study of nonhuman primates. Human Variation – to describe and explain biological differences between various human populations. Biological study areas and specializations: Molecular anthropology Astrology (study of skeletons) Paleontology Forensic anthropology 2. Archaeology – the study of the human past through material remains found In the present. Don’t do dinosaurs, few do pyramids, and fewer do space aliens. Basic Premise of Archeology: Material remains studied were created and deposited in the past, but are studied in the present.
Surviving archaeological record is typically a pale reflection of what actually happened in the past. Prehistoric Archeology: 99% of human history is unrecorded before present historic archeology studies. Archeology today: Trash In landfills Is usually a good representation of the state of the economy (poor economy – less trash). August 24. 2012 Applied Anthropology: Work for non-academic clients, such as government agencies, community groups, and businesses. All four sub-disciplines Cultural, Linguistic, Physical (Biological), Archaeology August 27, 2012 Research Ethics: Informed Consent:
Especially when performed on human subjects Medical research means the subject must be protected and aware of test What Is Who is sponsoring the research? Who can you call with questions? Personal safety and safety of the subjects Interpretation of data gathered: Mimic categories Used by the people interviewed Ethic categories Used by ethnographer Research Process: Formulating research questions Obtaining funding Conducting the research Interpreting the research Publishing the results Subject Position(s) of the Ethnographer(s): Country of origin Region, community Class Race/Ethnicity
Gender/Sexual orientation Age Life experience Social Theories Current at the Time Research Conducted: Interactions that occurred during fieldwork: How the people being represented choose to represent themselves to the ethnographer. How the ethnographer represents him or herself and interprets the interactions then and later. Historical Events: Before and during the research Types of Studies: Community studies Comparative studies Multi-sited (several research areas) Problem-oriented research Longitudinal research Team research Theoretical Trends in Cultural Anthropology: Historical Particularistic:
In the United States Franz Boas = father of anthropology in the United States Focus on Native Americans Describe cultural artifacts, knowledge Assumption: Indigenous cultures were disappearing in the face of modernity, so anthropologists needed to “salvage” that knowledge. Another important goal: argued that cultures are very complex and all components off culture matter. Ruth Benedict Margaret Made 0 Patterns of culture, culture and personality Structural Functionalism: Developed in Britain and France What are the functions of structures and how do they make everything work?
Theory sakes away from the fact that society can function organically and doesn’t address what happens if the society is not functioning properly or is malfunctioning. Influenced a lot of ideas about religion and society. Bronchial Mammalians Polish, taught in Britain Credited as the person who came up with doing extensive field research for a year (living in the culture). Developed out of fieldwork that it is not enough to tell the natives to come up to the house and do interviews, but you must live with the people of a village and see what happens on a day-to-day basis to really understand the society.
A. R. Radcliff-Brown Research in Africa Claude Levi-Strauss French Took Structural Functionalism and worked it with the mind Cultural Evolution and Cultural Ecology: Concerns: Adaptations to environments Historical Ecology says you cannot assume that things are organically created but you must consider people of the past. Leslie White, Julian Steward, etc. Political Economy: Concerns: Power relations and social inequalities Pay attention to the relationships and power differences within a particular society or culture. Stresses social inequalities based on class Influenced by the Marxist theory
Cultural Interpretation and Reflexive Ethnographers: Reflections about power relations involved in ethnographic research and writing. In particular, reflections about the role of the ethnographer in conducting and writing up the research. Questions scientific claims to objectivity and truth. The idea that you must be someone from outside of the culture to analyze the culture because you will be more objective was questioned because what about the language or the subtle aspects of the culture that an outsider could not understand. Situates ethnography in history versus “ethnographic present” which made impersonations about groups.
Early ethnographers were written in present tense. Present tense had a tendency to represent the cultures as unchanging. August 29, 2012 Paul Arabian (1977): 1968 0 12 years after Morocco had achieved independence from France Arabians Subject Position Research Process Richard Abraham (taught Arabian Arabic; Arabian saw Abraham as a friend) All Meeker Milk Post Modern, Post-colonial Feminist, Diaspora Studies, etc. Changes in the forms of modern society Accounts for disparities among countries and the historical legacies of European colonialism.
Accounts for inequalities based on sex, gender, and race-ethnicity that were not sufficiently counted for by political economy’s. Tong: Cathy A. Small (1997): Voyages: from Tong Villages to American Suburbs History Smalls subject position Research process Key cultural consultants Other research methods Self-Reflexive Ethnography US Immigration Policy: 1796 0 Free White Persons (men) ASSES O Slavery ends 1824/1924 0 National Origin Quota – Laws 1965 0 Immigration and Nationality Act 1986 0 Immigration Reform and Control Act Legal Permanent Residency: Family Reunification 2005: of 1. Lion Skilled workers Investors Random lottery 2000: 8 million applicants 1 10,000 selected 178 Tongs Refugees/political asylum cases Remittances is the money immigrants send back. Material wealth important for some aspects of life in Tong. Tong: History 1500 B. C 0 Polynesians come to settle 875 0 Stratified Chiefdom Low chiefs Specialists Commoner farmers 1150 0 ‘Lounge’ Tu” Tong capital 1 575 0 4-tiered tomb September 5 Tong: Kava Drinking Ceremonies – people were arranged and served by their social status; typically women do the serving to men. Religion: ‘Original’ gods
House’s (Supreme god) Loyola (rain, wind, agriculture, harvest) Maim (holding up the islands) 5 sea gods; god for craftsmen At least 300 gods ‘Soul’ gods ‘Mischievous’ gods Celebrations: Community celebrations and exchanges Ceremonial wealth (kola) Tap cloths and mats; baskets of food Blankets, cash, etc. Weddings and funerals First birthday, 21st birthday Tautology Special dance performed by women; could be difficult learn Kinship and Raising Children: The Tong way (nag factions) Respect (including tapes) Children could not touch top of father’s head Exchanges, obligations (gave)
Outside/inside Expectation that cooking is outside of house and eating is separated from cooking. Kinship and Households: Father = head; disciplinarian Brothers, sisters Relationship becomes a lot more formal after puberty. Eldest brother, eldest sister High expectations; must fulfill roles if a death occurs. Eldest son’s futuristic privilege is that they inherit the land. Father’s sister Could have the children if she wanted; very important role.
Mother’s family Adoption Contact with Europeans: 1616, 1643 0 Dutch explorers asses 0 Captain James Cook (British) 1797 0 London Mission Society (Boson) sass 0 Cargo ships, Whalers asses 0 Wesleyan Methodist missionaries; Wars of Succession/Civil Wars and conflicts between chiefs 1834 0 Rising Chief converts 1845 0 Becomes King George I 1875 0 Some chiefs, land, taxes, etc. 1900 0 British Protectorate 1954 0 Independence Mourning period for a kings death is 10 days. Businesses are expected to be closed during the mourning period.
With the last kings death the mourning period was deck September 10 Culture At least ‘365’ different definitions “Complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, arts, morals, law, custom, and any there capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society’ (Taylor 1871). Going to be a member of a specific society Characteristics of Culture: Learned Keeping 2-3 feet of space between you and someone you don’t know intimately was never a taught thing, but is learned implicitly by observation.
Systems of Symbolic Meanings Religious symbols (I. E. A cross) entail a lot of meaning people. Culture teaches us how to express biological or natural ‘urges’ in particular ways. What, when, and how to eat All-encompassing In other words, not restricted to ‘high culture, fine arts, great literature, etc. All that relates to everyday life. Integrated Different aspects of culture are interrelated, patterned systems. Social scientists focus a lot of attention on trying to determine various patterns and relationships.
Changes in one aspect of culture usually entail changes in other aspects. Example: increasing numbers of women in the U. S working outside the home from the asses on. People use culture actively and creatively. Culture as a ‘process’ vs.. A thing. Once you start thinking of culture as a process, change can take place. Various forms of knowledge and practice Culture can be adaptive or maladaptive with respect to the (natural and/or cultural) People raised with certain rules and norms, BUT Rules and norms vary according to subject positions of individuals.
Gender, age, etc. They are subject to interpretation. They can be contested and changed. There are struggles within cultures (and among different groups of people) over the meanings of symbols, ideas, values, and practices. Ideals: what people say they do or should do. Practices observed by members of that society (as well as anthropologists). Levels of Many cultures have origins before nation-states were ever created. However, today: International or transnational cultures Spread of global capitalism, commercialism.
Many struggles over values and meanings. National cultures Subcultures (within nations) I. E. The South in the U. S. Has several distinguishing factors. Region, ethnicity, language, class, religion, age, etc. Cultural Relativism Practices in one culture should not be Judged by the standards of another culture. Vs.. Ethnocentrism, Human Rights, Cultural Rights Analyzing Cultures Universities You must eat, you must sleep, etc. Generalities Common in many different cultures Particularities
September 12 Rites of Passage Separation, Limitability, Incorporation Collective Limitability Community spirit, solidarity, effervescence (some) social hierarchies are temporarily suspended. Equivalent of Carnival in Brazil is Marci Grass in the United States. Religion Beliefs and rituals concerned with supernatural beings, forces, and powers (Wallace 1966: 5 cited in Cotta). Rituals Formal, stylized, repetitive, stereotyped, practices usually performed in special places at set times. Social acts, typically with groups; participation, versus audience, religious/secular Functions of Religion
Personal or group transformations Through rituals and rites of passage Create a sense of group unity Through shared practices (rituals and rites) Explain the mysterious Reduce anxiety, offer hope Help people cope with adversity Joy, fear, etc. Reduce or create anxiety Control nature and/or social worlds Achieve specific aims Provide moral codes (or values) Guide practices and beliefs Produce regret, guilt, shame Produce the need for forgiveness Capote’s in Southern Mexico and live in Cacao and use the economic system of Slaughter to fund economic practices.
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